Earthenware, Stoneware, & Porcelain

For thousands of years, people throughout the world have been using clay to make pottery containers of various forms for use in their daily lives. Pottery vessels are essential for storing, cooking, and serving food, but once they break and lose their usefulness, they are discarded along with other household refuse. Pottery, unlike other materials—such

Faunal Analysis

Method of Identification The assemblages discussed here were analyzed using conventional zooarchaeological techniques and sources. 1 Whenever possible, each bone or bone fragment was identified to species level. When this level of identification was not possible, higher-order taxonomic categories were used. The sheep/goat category was used for almost all caprine remains. Historic information indicates that


Local Glass History Between the 1770s and 1920s, at least seven glass factories were situated in or near the I-95/Girard Avenue Project area. Although only small sections of two factories have been directly impacted and excavated thus far, a remarkable amount of 19th-century American glass has been recovered. Most of the artifacts were found in

Historical Research Resources

This site contains information gathered from a wide variety of sources, and this section is devoted to describing the different types of resources and reference material we examine during research efforts for this project. As you will see, different types of records were kept over time—some still available, while others have been lost. Though records

I-95 Meat Cuts

Meat Cuts In the historic period, animals (specifically cows, pigs, and sheep) were butchered in relatively standard and prescribed ways, producing comparatively uniform cuts of meat. Zooarchaeologists are the specialists who study animal remains recovered from archaeological excavations. They use information gathered from historical records and butchers’ diagrams to calculate the minimum number of meat

Recipes: Beef

Adapted Recipes Print Broiled Beef Steaks with Shallots Adapted from Leslie 1840 Prep Time 5 minutes Cook Time 25 minutes Total Time 30 minutes Ingredients 1 oz butter, room temperature 1 tbsp mushroom ketchup or Worcestershire sauce 4 shallots, finely chopped 2 tbsp fresh parsley, chopped 4 beef steaks, 8 ounces vegetable oil pepper kosher

Recipes: Chicken and Poultry

Print Chicken Pie Adapted from Glasse 1774 Ingredients 1.5 lbs chicken breast 1 cup chicken broth 1/2 tsp salt 1/4 tsp black pepper 1.5 cups milk 3 tbsp butter 1 onion chopped 1 cup chopped celery 1/3 cup all purpose flour 2 cups frozen mixed vegetables 1 tbsp fresh parsley 1/2 tsp dried thyme 1

Recipes: Fish and Seafood

Print Poached and Breaded Sturgeon with White Wine Sauce Adapted from Nott 1724 Ingredients 1.5 lbs zucchini, sliced crosswise 1/2 inches 2 tbsp unsalted butter, softened 1 tsp thyme, chopped 3 tbsp olive oil 24 ounces sturgeon, four 6 ounce fillets 1 tbsp white wine vinegar 3/4 cup water 1 medium shallot, thinly sliced 3

Recipes: Mutton

Adapted Recipes Print Shoulder of Mutton stuffed with Oysters Adapted from Edgeworth 1860 Prep Time 30 minutes Cook Time 1 hour 30 minutes Total Time 2 hours Ingredients butchers twine salt pepper 2 lbs shoulder of lamb or mutton Oyster Stuffing 8-12 oz cooked oysters boiled or stewed 2 cups hard bread coarsely chopped 8

Recipes: Pork

Adapted Recipes Print Roast Leg of Pork Adapted from Leslie 1840 Ingredients 20 lbs pork leg, usually one leg 1/4 cup grated lemon zest 1/4 cup fresh lemon juice 1.5 cups extra virgin olive oil 2 cups dry white wine 3 heads garlic, minced 5 cloves garlic, halved 3 bunches, oregano, chopped Instructions In a bowl

Recipes: Veal

Adapted Recipes Print Stuffed Veal Roast Adapted from Carter 1796 Prep Time 20 minutes Cook Time 1 hour 30 minutes Total Time 1 hour 50 minutes Ingredients 5 white button mushrooms 10 ounce frozen spinach, one box, defrosted 3 sprigs fresh rosemary 1 orange zested 1 lemon zested 3 lbs veal roast, netted and tied

Turtle Soup

This recipe was transcribed directly from: Eliza Leslie Miss Leslie’s Lady’s New Receipt Book (Philadelphia, PA: A. Hart, Late Carey and Hart, 1850). P. 34-37 To Dress a Turtle The turtle should be taken out of water, and killed over night in winter, and early in the morning in summer. Hang it up by the