Remer Site – Historic Context

1026 Shackamaxon Street Property History

A 1958 photograph of the house constructed at 1026 Shackamaxon Street in 1899.
A 1958 photograph of the house constructed at 1026 Shackamaxon Street in 1899. Photo courtesy of PhillyHistory.org, a project of the Philadelphia Department of Records

Early Settlement, 1691 – 1778

This 1796 map of the Philadelphia area depicts Shackamaxon Steet as one of the more developed streets in the otherwise rural Kensington.
This 1796 map of the Philadelphia area depicts Shackamaxon Steet as one of the more developed streets in the otherwise rural Kensington. Courtesy of Library of Congress.

The property that became 1026 Shackamaxon Street was originally part of a 462.5-acre tract of land William Penn’s commissioners granted to Michael Nilsson Lyckan in early 1691, after he surveyed the above-mentioned land.  For the next 72 years, the area that eventually became Kensington was part of a larger estate owned by Thomas Fairman and family, then George Shoemaker, Robert Hopkins, and Edward Pennington. In 1763, two Philadelphians—Dr. Thomas Say and ironmonger Richard Blackham—purchased a tract that encompassed 1026 Shackamaxon from Edward Pennington, an in-law of William Penn and successful Quaker merchant. Over the course of a year, Say and Blackham partitioned the lot and sold tracts to at least 12 individuals before dividing the remaining land among themselves, probably leading to Shackamaxon being one of the more built up streets in Kensingston at the time (Figure 1). Blackham received a lot—154 x 60 feet, on the south side of Shackamaxon Street, 200 feet from Queen Street (later named Richmond Street)—as his share of the property and sold it to John Huffman (or Hoffman) on August 7, 1764. This transaction does not appear to have been recorded and is known only through the recitation in later deeds.1

During Huffman’s period of ownership (i.e., 1764–1778), a frame house was constructed on the property and a well for drinking water sunk on or near Shackamaxon Street. It was also during Huffman’s tenure that the American Revolution began and war came to Philadelphia.  In September 1777, after Washington’s army was defeated at the Battle of Brandywine to the southwest of the city, British forces under General Sir William Howe captured and occupied Philadelphia. To defend their position in the city, the British erected a series of defensive positions and small forts called redoubts along the high ground above what was then Philadelphia’s northern boundary.  One of these redoubts, garrisoned by a loyalist unit known as the Queen’s American Rangers, was located along the Delaware River at the mouth of the Cohocksink Creek—just a couple of hundred yards south of the Huffman’s property. Howe’s army occupied the city through the winter of 1777–1778. Due to changes in strategy and the large number of troops that would be needed to continue the occupation of Philadelphia, the British evacuated the city in spring 1778.2

Perhaps the ordeal of occupation had been too much for the Huffmans, as they sold their property for £140 on October 1, 1778, to their neighbor, butcher Godfrey Remer (this name is commonly spelled “Reamer” or “Reimer”), who purchased it in the name of his son Matthew as an early inheritance.3

The Remer Family, 1778 – 1853

The properties owned by Godfrey and Matthew Remer overlaid on a 1916 Sanborn fire insurance map.
The properties owned by Godfrey and Matthew Remer overlaid on a 1916 Sanborn fire insurance map. Courtesy of Pennsylvania State University.

Godfrey Remer was likely a Palatine German who immigrated to North America in the first half of the eighteenth century. Early records indicate that he lived in Bucks County before he came to Kensington. According to the minutes of the Middletown Quaker Meeting in Bucks County, Godfrey was accepted into the meeting in April 1750, but expelled in early 1755 after he married Mary Musgrove at Gloria Dei Lutheran Church (now “Old Swedes” Church in South Philadelphia). Sometime in the 1770s, Godfrey purchased the house and lot to the south of the Huffmans on Shackamaxon Street, and in 1778 bought the adjoining land for his 22-year-old son. At the time his father purchased the property, Matthew was actively involved with the Patriot cause. According to the Memorials of Colonel Jehu Eyre, Remer was part of the artillery company of militia that Eyre, a Kensington shipbuilder, had raised on December 6, 1776.  The militia company joined with Washington’s army, which at the time was camped across the Delaware River from Trenton in preparation for the Christmas Day surprise attack on Hessian forces in that town. On December 23, two days before the crossing, Eyre tasked the ship carpenters in his company, Remer included, with helping to repair the boats that would be needed for the attack.  Though Eyre’s artillery company did not see action during the ensuing Battle of Trenton, it later participated in the American victory at Princeton, New Jersey, on January 4, 1777. 4

When the British began their campaign to capture Philadelphia, Remer was once again called up into the militia, this time serving in Captain Browne’s Company, which was part of a regiment commanded by Jehu Eyre, who had been promoted to colonel. Though Matthew Remer’s company was probably not present at the Battle of Brandywine, it did serve at the Battle of Germantown on October 4, 1777, where it provided supporting fire for militia attacking Hessian troops along the Wissahickon Creek, on the British left flank. Despite early success against the Hessians, enemy reinforcements eventually forced the gunners to retreat. In November of that year, muster rolls show that Remer was camped with his unit at Whitemarsh, and it is possible that he participated in the skirmishes near there in December. Though the militiamen’s term of service was up at the end of November, the occupation of Philadelphia kept most from being able to return home, and a number of militiamen from the Kensington artillery unit temporarily reenlisted and stayed with Colonel Eyre at Valley Forge for at least part of the winter.  It is possible that Remer was among these men, considering the proximity of British forces to his home in Kensington.5

Though Remer continued to serve intermittently with the militia throughout the war, he also resumed his job as a shipwright and began to settle down at his new residence.  Matthew and his wife Salome (a.k.a. Sarah) had at least four children that reached adulthood—Mary, Elizabeth, Matthew, and John. In addition to growing his family, Matthew improved his real estate holdings by apparently constructing a second dwelling house on his property between 1795 and 1796.6

Matthew died in 1804, and in December of that year, his widow Sarah was named the administrator of his estate. Included in the administration papers is an inventory of Matthew’s material goods and their worth. This inventory gives a glimpse into the kind of life Matthew lived.  While not opulent by any means, it would have been quite respectable by the standards of the early nineteenth century. At the time of his death, Matthew’s possessions included a tin plate stove, a Dutch oven, a dining room table with six Windsor chairs, a tea table, a desk, an iron pot and kettle, a tea kettle, a dozen Queensware plates, and four “old” silver tea spoons. The tin plate (or ten plate) stove is among the more significant indications of Matthew’s economic standing. Though these stoves, used for heating and cooking, would become much more common over the course of the nineteenth century, in the late eighteenth century they were still a relatively expensive product.7

In addition to managing her deceased husband’s estate, Sarah Remer was now the head of a household that, as of 1810, included her sons and probably one of her daughters and grandchildren. By 1816, according to Philadelphia city directories, her son John was working as a victualler, provisioning ships with food and alcohol. By 1819, he seems to have established his own household on the Frankford Road.  His brother Matthew also seems to have had his own household by that time, as well, or he possibly took over his mother’s, as he was assessed for not only himself, but for his mother’s estate, which included houses, a shop, and lots. Each brother having a separate household is confirmed by the 1820 census, in which both are enumerated as the heads of their households.8

In the mid-1820s, the Remer family suffered a series of deaths, some of which were due to an outbreak of smallpox in early 1824. At least three of Sarah Remer’s grandchildren—Mary, Rebecca, and George—died from late March into early April. The dates of the deaths of Sarah Remer and her son-in-law Peter Conver, Elizabeth’s husband, are unknown, but they almost certainly occurred around this time, as Elizabeth Conver is listed as a widow in an 1826 tax assessment, and Sarah disappears from city directories after the early 1820s.9

The Remer family recovered somewhat from the epidemic—John’s son, John, went into business as a butcher, and Elizabeth Conver (also spelled Conover) married a widower, Enoch Strawn of Bucks County, and presumably moved to his farm. After about a decade, Elizabeth bought up the shares in the property held by her brothers, and in 1838 she became the sole owner of the lot at 1026 Shackamaxon Street with the two houses on it. The Strawns moved to the Shackamaxon property and continued to live there together until Enoch died in 1849. His will was focused primarily on dividing his assets among his own children. By common law, Elizabeth inherited a third of the income from his farm in Bucks County for the remainder of her life.10

By the time of the 1850 census, 1026 Shackamaxon was home to one extended family, but divided into two households. Elizabeth headed a household which consisted of herself, her daughter Sarah Smith, and her grandchildren, William, Mary, and Peter Smith. None of the women worked outside the home, but the two males in the household—William and Peter—were employed as a machinist and umbrella finisher, respectively. Apparently residing in the same house but counted as a separate household were Elizabeth’s son John, who worked as a shoemaker, and daughter Eliza Conver. Elizabeth Strawn died of a stroke several years later in March 1853 at the age of 76. Her will divided up her real estate among her six children, with the property on Shackamaxon Street being given to her four daughters. The elder two daughters each received a three-story brick house, while the younger two were given white frame houses.  One of these white frame houses went to Eliza Conver in trust for the remainder of her life. Upon her death, the house would pass to any surviving children. An inventory of Elizabeth Strawn’s personal possessions was made upon her death. The inventory seems to be for all of her properties, but with the exception of six sets of crockery, no note is made of the location of the various belongings. 11

Various Occupants, 1853 – 1879

This 1862 map depicts the area around 1026 Shackamaxon as being largely developed by the time of the Civil War.
This 1862 map depicts the area around 1026 Shackamaxon as being largely developed by the time of the Civil War. Courtesy of Map Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia.

It is likely that Eliza Conver rented out the frame house she was bequeathed in her mother’s will instead of moving in. The 1854 Tax Register from the District of Kensington’s First Ward lists policeman Eliakim Hillman at the property, and the city directory from that year gives Hillman’s address as 76 Shackamaxon Street—possibly the property’s address before the streets were given their modern numbering in 1858.The city directory for 1854 also lists a comb maker named Cephas Curtis as residing on Shackamaxon above Queen Street. Though the tax register from that year indicates he was not living at 1026 Shackamaxon, he seems to have moved to the house within several years, as later directories give his address of 1026 Shackamaxon. Curtis moved down the street in 1858 or 1859, and by 1860 he was living on Shackamaxon Street near Richmond Street. 12

The dwelling at 1026 Shackamaxon saw several more short term tenants, including frame maker Lambert Longshore in 1858 and harness maker Benjamin Zelker, who possibly resided in a rear dwelling in 1859. Eliza Conver may have even briefly taken up residence at 1026 in 1860, as the census records her living there with her brother John Conver and two young boys, William Fisher and John Smith, the latter of whom might be the John C. Smith that resided in 1026 for half a century later in his life. Both Convers were involved in the shoemaking trade, and perhaps were in business together. Interestingly, both were recorded as being illiterate despite the availability of a public school education in Kensington beginning in 1818. On this specific census sheet, of the 19 individuals above 20 years of age, only two men and two women are unable to read and write, giving testament to the relatively high literacy rate for the United States during this era. 13

The Conver family’s residency at 1026 seems to have been short, as cigar maker and sometime boatman Samuel Gentry moved in with his widowed mother, Mary Gentry, in late 1860. The Gentrys resided at 1026 until Mary died in August 1874 at age 84. Samuel may have briefly moved around the corner to 1137 Dunton Street after his mother’s death, as he died there at age 53 less than two months later.14

Maria Uber, the widow of David Uber, moved into 1026 Shackamaxon in 1874. She remained a tenant for four years and earned income by selling poultry. After Maria Uber’s departure in 1879, Sarah Smith, one of Elizabeth Strawn’s daughters, moved back in with members of her family. 15

The Smith Family, 1879 – 1928

An 1875 map depicting 1026 Shackamaxon and the surrounding area.
An 1875 map depicting 1026 Shackamaxon and the surrounding area.

A member of Sarah Smith’s extended family occupied the house at 1026 Shackamaxon Street for the next 50 years. From 1879 to 1881, George Smith and John C. Smith are listed in the city directories as residing at 1026 Shackamaxon, working as a laborer and a wood turner, respectively. The 1880 federal census recorded three residents of 1026: 60-year-old widow Eliza Smith, her 29-year-old son John, and 73-year-old Sarah Smith, widowed and listed as a boarder. Eliza and John’s specific relation to Sarah is undetermined, but it is possible that they could be Sarah’s sister and nephew. By this time, the 25-year-old George had married and moved into the home of his wife’s family several blocks away at 433 East Thompson Street. He may have returned to 1026 briefly in the early 1880s, before taking up permanent residence on Thompson Street after 1884. 16

This 1895 fire insurance map is the last to depict a frame dwelling at the front of the 1026 Shackamaxon property.
This 1895 fire insurance map is the last to depict a frame dwelling at the front of the 1026 Shackamaxon property. Courtesy of Athenaeum of Philadelphia.

Sarah died of heart disease in 1881 at age 74. John C. Smith married Theresa Bierker in the early 1880s and brought her home to 1026 Shackamaxon. The young couple may have taken in a boarder or boarders as a source of extra income, with one such individual being Henry Schminke, who lived at 1026 in the late 1880s and as a (furniture) finisher may have worked with John Smith. The couple may have also found another source of income in the 1890s. Starting in 1895, Theresa is listed as a layer out of the dead in the city directories. This archaic term for an undertaker possibly hints to a business partnership with her woodturner/woodworker husband, as many early undertakers were simply carpenters who built coffins in their spare time. This pairing, and the fact that 1026 Shackamaxon was listed as Theresa’s place of business, may indicate that the house served as the neighborhood funeral home, with John building the coffins and Theresa washing and dressing the bodies for burial. From 1897 onward, she is listed as a dressmaker instead of a layer out of the dead, but this does not necessarily indicate that their undertaking practice had ceased. 17

In February 1898, Eliza Smith died from bronchitis, and in April the remaining heirs of Elizabeth Strawn sold the property to Theresa Smith. Now that they owned the property as well as resided in it, John and Theresa had the frame moved to the rear of the property by contractors Christian Dear & Son, and a two-story brick dwelling constructed for them in its place in April 1899 by a different contractor, H. M. Markley. The changes to the property can be observed on insurance maps from this era, with G. W. Bromley’s map from 1895 showing a relatively small L-shaped frame structure at 1026, set back from the street. The Bromley map published six years later depicts a larger L-shaped brick structure along the houseline of the street.  On the back of the brick structure a small frame portion is depicted, and in the backyard a separate frame structure, which seems to be at least a portion of the original frame dwelling. 18

This 1901 fire insurance map depicts the changes that occurred on the property at the turn of the twentieth century. The frame dwelling, formerly at the front of the property, has been moved tot the rear. In it's place stands the new brick dwelling that John and Theresa Smith had erected.
This 1901 fire insurance map depicts the changes that occurred on the property at the turn of the twentieth century. The frame dwelling, formerly at the front of the property, has been moved tot the rear. In its place stands the new brick dwelling that John and Theresa Smith had erected. Courtesy of Map Collection, Free Library of Philadelphia.

While these changes were being made to their property, the Smith family resided elsewhere—first at 1831 North Hancock Street and then at 1530 East Montgomery Ave. The Smith’s absence does not mean that the property was uninhabited during this time, however.  The 1900 census records occupants for both a front and rear dwelling—the household of Henry Wagner in the front, and Charles ____ in the rear. 19

Henry Wagner immigrated to the United States from Germany in 1866 and married his Pennsylvania-born wife Clara in about 1885.  Their only child had died sometime before the 1900 census, so they lived at 1026 by themselves.  In 1900 and 1901, Wagner is listed in the city directories as residing at 1026, which was close to his business at 1120 Frankford Avenue, where he sold sand. In about 1900, they were briefly joined by a boarder, widow Louise Warner, but shortly after, all vacated the dwelling, with the Wagners moving to 14 Wildey Street, and Warner moving into one of the rear dwellings at 1033 Sarah Street. The house at 1026 Shackamaxon probably remained vacant until the return of the Smiths, sometime in 1902. 20

John and Theresa Smith returned to 1026 Shackamaxon with their daughters Gertrude and Bertha in about 1902 and resided there for the next two and a half decades. Both daughters were employed as telephone operators and lived with their parents into their twenties. Sometime in the 1910s, Bertha seems to have married and moved out, but Gertrude never married and continued to live at home. Eventually, she moved into the rear dwelling of 1026. 21

John died in March 1925, and Theresa followed in November 1927. In her will, Theresa left a half share to Gertrude, with the interest from the other half to go to Bertha as long as she was married.  She would gain possession of her full share in the event of the death of her husband or, if she predeceased him, it would be passed to her children. In a codicil added to the will in August 1927, Theresa gave Gertrude all of her personal possessions and permitted her to live at 1026 and collect rent for her own use for up to 18 months after her death. The will was probated in November 1927, and Gertrude sold the property in mid-November 1928 to Francis J. and Helen Matthews. 22

The Final Decades, 1928-1967

At least initially, the Matthews probably did not reside at 1026 Shackamaxon; instead, they rented it out, with the next known tenant being Catharine Mulholland, who was living at the address in 1930. The divorced Mulholland was living with her 29-year-old son Thomas and two boarders—Joseph Coll and Peter Gooch. The Mulhollands and their boarders left by 1935, the year the family of Helen Matthews’ brother, upholsterer Martin Watt, is first known to have resided at 1026.  The family was still living in the house in 1940, and at that time included Martin, his wife Elizabeth, and their sons Martin, Robert, and Joseph.  Living with the Watt family since about 1935 was Francis Matthews’ nephew, Philip Mallon, who had previously lived in the rear dwelling with his grandmother, Anna Matthews, until her death that year. Anna Matthews’ death certificate seems to indicate that Francis Matthews was living at the address as well, though this cannot be confirmed. 23

Not long after the 1940 census, Francis and Helen Matthews sold the property to Bernard and Bessie Betlejewski. It is likely that the Betlejewskis did not reside at 1026, but instead rented out the property, as in 1944 the family of David Ubele was residing at the address. Upon the Betlejewskis’ divorce several years later, the deed was transferred to Bessie’s name, and then sold in 1949 to Edward V. Herlihy. Herlihy, who did reside at the address, was the last owner of 1026 before it was deeded to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Highways in 1967 and demolished for the construction of I-95. 24

Rear Dwelling of 1026 Shackamaxon Street

Fig. 8 Crop - Bromley1887_181931_B_revised-01
An 1887 map depicts 1026 Shackamaxon’s open backyard before the original frame dwelling was moved to the rear lot. Courtesy of Philadelphia Water Department

The first known reference to a rear residence is in McElroy’s city directory from 1860, when a harness maker by the name of Benjamin Zelker was listed at the rear of 1026. Aside from this listing, nothing else is known about Zelker or the rear dwelling he apparently lived in. The 1887 map of the 18th, 19th, and 31st Wards shows no rear structure, and one is not depicted on a map until 1901, two years after John C. and Theresa Smith had the main frame dwelling moved to the rear of the lot. (See Fig. 7). 25

According to the 1900 census, a family of four was living in a rear dwelling at 1026 Shackamaxon. The census form is too faded to definitively make out the surname of the residents, but it seems likely that the household was composed of a man in his thirties named Charles, his 36-year-old English-born wife Lizzie, and their two daughters Margaret and Maria Katie. Other than this fragmented and possibly incorrect information, nothing else is known about this family. 26

The next known residents of the rear dwelling at 1026 Shackamaxon were the Boon family, which consisted of 40-year-old filemaker Charles Boon, his 34-year-old English-born wife Elizabeth, and their daughters Katherine and Georgianna, who were 16 and 14 respectively. Boon was listed at the rear dwelling in the 1908 city directory, but by late that year he had moved his family across the street to a house at 1035 Shackamaxon Street. They were followed by 32-year-old machinist Thomas Haskins and his 24-year-old wife Theresa, who lived at 1026  until sometime in 1910. In late 1916 or early 1917, box maker John C. Volk moved from 1106 Day Street to the rear dwelling, and lived there until sometime in 1918, after which he left for 213 East Thompson Street. 27

In 1920, the Hungarian immigrant and glass worker Joseph Pischel was living in the rear with his wife Mary and their six-year-old daughter Margaret. The duration of their residence at 1026 Shackamaxon is unknown, but they likely had left by 1923, when Gertrude Smith took up residence in the rear dwelling. Gertrude, the daughter of property owners John C. and Theresa Smith, continued to live in the rear dwelling for several years, possibly until her mother died in 1927. In 1929, Thomas Mulholland Jr. and his mother were living in the rear dwelling, but had moved to the front house by April 1930. The Mulhollands were followed by Anna Matthews, a widowed Irish immigrant and mother of property owner Francis J. Matthews. Anna lived in the rear dwelling with her 26-year-old candy maker grandson Philip F. Mallon and another widowed Irish immigrant, Anna Nugent. In November 1935 Anna Matthews died, and Mallon subsequently moved into the main dwelling as a boarder. Joseph Davidson, a widowed construction worker, took his place in the rear dwelling. It is not known when or why Nugent left the property, but by the time of the 1940 census, Davidson was living alone. 28

References

  1. Philadelphia Exemplification Record Series, Volume 7, Deed Book E-3, Volume 5:444; Philadelphia County Deed Book F-10:115; Philadelphia County Will Book D:17; Philadelphia County Administration Book C:50; Philadelphia County Deed Book F-8:332, 334; Philadelphia County Deed Book G-2:311; Philadelphia County Deed Book H-8:2; Philadelphia County Deed Book H-18:95; Anonymous, “(Map of Philadelphia and vicinity during British occupation, ca. 1777).” Of 610, Saunders House records, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.; Hills, John, “A Plan of the City of Philadelphia and Its Environs shewing the improved parts, 1796.”; Philadelphia County Deed Book H 19:314; and Recited in Philadelphia County Deed Book D 1:271.
  2. Philadelphia County Deed Book D 1:271; British Map, c. 1777; and Justin Clement, Philadelphia 1777: Taking the Capital, Campaign. No. 176 (Oxford, United Kingdom and New York: Osprey Publishing 2007), 21, 89.
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  4. Swarthmore College; Swarthmore, Pennsylvania; Philadelphia Yearly Meeting Minutes; Call Number: MR-Ph 305; Remer Family Files; Philadelphia County Deed Book D 55:326; and Peter D. Keyser, “Memorials of Col. Jehu Eyre,” part 2, The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 3, no. 4 (1879): 415-417.
  5. Artillery Battalion Philadelphia City Militia, Captain Peter Browne’s Company, 11 September 1777, (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 6, vol. I, Muster Rolls Relating to the Associators and Militia of the City of Philadelphia), 532; John Armstrong, general of Pennsylvania militia, Genl. Armstrong to Pres’t Wharton, 1777, 5 October 1777 (Pennsylvania Archives, Series 1, vol. V, Pennsylvania Archives 1777), 645-646; Bernhard A. Uhlendorf and Edna Vosper, “Letters of Major Baurmeister During the Philadelphia Campaign, 1777-1778,” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 59 (1935): 415-17; Pennsylvania Archives, Series 2, Vol. XIII, Muster Rolls and Papers Relating to the Associators and Militia of the City and County of Philadelphia:651-652; and Keyser  421-422.
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  11. U.S., Bureau of the Census, Ward 1,Kensington, Philadelphia County, PA 1850:62-63; and Philadelphia County Will Book 30:262.
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  15. Gopsill’s Philadelphia City Directory, James Gopsill, Philadelphia. 1875:1515; 1876: 1518; 1877: 1468; 1878:1582; 1880:1698.
  16. Gopsill’s 1879:1500, 1504; 1880:1563, 1568; 1881:1520, 1525; 1882:1302, 1441, 1446; 1883:1345, 1488, 1493; 1884:1339, 1479, 1483; 1885:1474, 1628, 1633; U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 325, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1880:9; and U.S. Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 334, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1880:15.
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  18. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia City Death Certificates, 1803-1915,” index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/JDLY-HJM : accessed 13 Nov 2013), Eliza Smith, 1898; Philadelphia County Deed Book WMG-287:367; Philadelphia Building Permit 1899:648;  “Permits,” Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) Inquirer, March 1, 1899, p. 13, Genealogy Bank, subscription database accessed May 2014, http://www.genealogybank.com; “Real Estate News,” Philadelphia Inquirer, April 22, 1899, p. 9, Genealogy Bank, subscription database accessed May 2014, http://www.genealogybank.com; Philadelphia Building Permit 1899:1961; George W. and Walter S. Bromley, Atlas of the City of Philadelphia, (Philadelphia: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1895), Plate 13; and George W. and Walter S. Bromley, Atlas of the City of Philadelphia, (Philadelphia: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1901), Plate 13.
  19. U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0368, Ward 19, Philadelphia, PA 1900:12A ; Gopsill’s 1902:2300, 2307; and U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0337, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1900:2A.
  20. Gopsill’s 1900:2347; 1901:2475, 2503; 1902:2515, 2543.
  21. Gopsill’s 1903:2336, 2344; Polk’s-Boyd’s Philadelphia Directory, (Philadelphia: R. L. Polk and Company),1924:1068; U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0269, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1910:2B; and U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0388, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1920:5A.
  22. Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/. File Number 1925:34169; 1927:101571; Polk’s-Boyd’s 1925:1104; and Philadelphia County Will Book 515:141.
  23. U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 226, Ward 11, Philadelphia, PA 1920:1A;U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0826, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1930:12A ; U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 51-306, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1940:2B; Philadelphia County Pennsylvania Clerk of the Orphans’ Court. “Pennsylvania, Philadelphia marriage license index, 1885-1951.” Clerk of the Orphans’ Court, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 1925:516338; and Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. File Number: 1935:102791.
  24. Philadelphia County Deed Book WMH-996:334; “David Ubele, Jr.,” Philadelphia wounded list, Philadelphia Inquirer, November 21, 1944, p. 6, Old Fulton NY Post Cards, database accessed May 2014, http://www.fultonhistory.com/Fulton.html; Casualty Section, Office of Public Relations, Navy Department, State Summary of War Casualties (Pennsylvania), (U.S. Navy, 1946), 146; Philadelphia County Deed Book CJP-862:141, 161; Philadelphia County Deed Book CJP-2415:185; and “Catherine R. Herlihy,” death notice, Philadelphia Inquirer, September 5, 1956, p. 35, Old Fulton NY Post Cards, database accessed May 2014, http://www.fultonhistory.com/Fulton.html
  25. McElroy’s 1860:1108; George W. and Walter S. Bromley Atlas of the City of Philadelphia, vol. 2. (Philadelphia: G. W. Bromley and Co., 1887), Plate B; and Bromley, Bromley and Bromley 1901: Plate 13.
  26. U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0337, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1900:2A.
  27. Boyd’s Street and Avenue Directory of the City of Philadelphia, (Philadelphia: C. E. Howe Company), 1908:206; 1909:254; 1910:878; 1916:1692; 1917:1715; 1918:1802; 1919:1192; U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0271, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1910:6A.; and U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0269, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1910:2B.
  28. U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0388, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1920:5A; U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0351, Ward 17, Philadelphia, PA 1920:1B ; Polk’s-Boyd’s 1924:1068; U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 0826, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1930:12A ; and U.S., Bureau of the Census, Enumeration District 51-306, Ward 18, Philadelphia, PA 1940:2B; and Pennsylvania (State). Death certificates, 1906–1963. Series 11.90 (1,905 cartons). Records of the Pennsylvania Department of Health, Record Group 11. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. File Number: 1935:102791.